9 Great Political Socialization Examples (AP Gov Help) (2022) (2022)

Ever wondered how ideologies, in-group identities, political affiliations, or religions live on, generation after generation? What causes them to survive, often thrive, like living organisms?

How does a new generation acquire the political views that define their outlook and worldview?

The answer is through political socialization.

Political socialization is the process where people acquire a political viewpoint through cultural and social interactions. Examples of political socialization include daily recitations of the pledge of allegiance, watching politicized pop culture, and watching news propaganda that reinforces political viewpoints.

In the words of Herbert Hyman, one of the earliest scholars of the field, political socialization is:

“…the learning of social patterns corresponding to an individual’s societal position as mediated through various agencies of society” (Hyman, 1959)

Political socialization operates through various institutions that influence an individual’s political consciousness. These institutions are called “agents of socialization” and include:

  • The family
  • The school
  • Religion
  • Media
  • The State.

1. Pledges of Allegiance at School

In many countries, school students are required to recite a formal text that affirms their loyalty to the nation-state.

Such a text may be a Pledge of Allegiance as in the United States. Each day, students stand up, put their hands on their hearts and recite this pledge:

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“I pledge allegiance to the Flag of the United States of America, and to the Republic for which it stands, one Nation under God, indivisible, with liberty and justice for all.”

It’s interesting that the pledge mentions God, given that the United States is supposedly a secular nation. But this, too, is a version of political socialization. Its existence in the pledge is a nod to the Christian conservatism that has always been the dominant political force in the modern United States.

2. National Anthems

Many national anthems are artefacts of political socialization designed to promote nationalism and patriotism.

In the United States, the national anthem – the Star-Spangled Banner – is often played before major sporting events, and those present, including spectators and athletes, are expected to stand up as a mark of respect to the national anthem.

The repeated performance of such an act, especially at a young age, instils certain political values such as patriotism and nationalism in children.

Thus, the national anthem is used as a tool of political socialization by the state to inculcate a certain political ideology – that of nationalism, or loyalty towards the state.

3. Red and Blue States in the US

US elections are keenly followed by observers across the globe, and it is common knowledge that certain parts of the US traditionally vote for only one party – whether Republican or Democrat.

Such political affiliation has a remarkably long shelf life, with support for a particular party in a region often cutting across generations.

For instance, the western and eastern coast of the United States are typically associated with a more liberal political attitude, that translates to greater support for the Democratic party.

This is usually demonstrated through a clear, progressive stand on several issues such as greater public funding, higher taxation on the wealthy, support for LGBTQIA and women’s reproductive rights issues, more liberal immigration policies, and so on.

Such political values are often transmitted from one generation to the next, thereby ensuring that they live on through political socialization. Thus, there is strong likelihood that someone born in a city such as New York or Los Angeles might find themselves being socialized into a certain set of political values that usually fall on the left of the political spectrum.

On the other hand, states located in the American mid-west and the deep south often vote for Republican candidates.

The political values associated with such states are termed “conservative” and are distinguished by issues such as reduced governmental regulation and greater autonomy for private enterprise, less taxation, and insistence on greater curbs on overseas immigration.

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Like in the previous case, such values show a remarkable persistence through time in the specific geographies that they are found.

This is possible only through a process of political socialization, in which one generation inherits the political values of its predecessor through primary agents of socialization such as the family, the school, religion, etc.

4. Military Parades

While military parades are often seen as events to thank veterans for their service, there is often also an element of political pageantry designed to pull people into a political tent.

For example, France is famed for its political parades designed to celebrate republicanism, a political position the nation is famed for. Similarly, North Korea’s parades of tanks (which citizens are obligated to attend), are designed to promote socialism and project an image of strength.

Related: 52 Examples of Ideologies

5. Religious Spaces

Religious spaces, including places of worship, or schools run by religious organizations are powerful spaces of political socialization.

People who are deeply involved with their religion are likely to have political opinions that resonate with the larger religious community to which they belong.

This kind of socialization also ensures that rituals and practices that may seem obsolete in the modern world continue to be practiced and preserved generation after generation.

We can see, for example, the political socialization that occurs in some churches where the pastors promote either conservatism or liberalism from the pulpit.

6. American Pop Culture During the Cold War

During the Cold War, American pop culture, including Hollywood and the music industry, often acted as agents of political socialization, painting the Soviet Union in various hues of evil and ridicule.

For instance, in the iconic Sylvester Stallone film Rocky 4, the protagonist Rocky Balboa is portrayed as the all-American hero, while his opponent, a Soviet boxer, is depicted as possessing barely human attributes.

The soviet’s expressionless face and hatred that recognizes no sporting spirit dehumanizes him as the “Soviet other” on the big screen.

Similarly, another popular film of the 1980s, Rambo 3 features Sylvester Stallone supporting an Afghan Mujahideen army against a Soviet invasion. Take a look back in time at the film’s trailer:

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The film even ends with a message of solidarity for the brave Afghan Mujahideen fighting the Soviets (ironically the very Mujahideen the US would spend the first 2 decades of the 21st-century fighting).

Popular songs of the era included hits such as Rasputin by the band Boney M, that poked fun at Russia and its people.

Through such antics, the American pop-cultural machine tried to socialize a generation of Americans into believing in the essential goodness of American. At the same time, it emphasized the diabolic ‘evil’ nature of their opponents.

This also meant endorsing a set of political values such as capitalism and neoliberalism that America stood for in the late 20th century.

Related: 27 Top Taboos in America

On the other side of the equation, we can also examine Soviet propaganda tools that were used for political socialization to portray America in a similarly poor light.

7. Colonialism and the White Man’s Burden

Beginning with the late 16th century, and until the beginning of the 20th Century,much of the globe was colonized by Europe.

The moral and legal justification for colonization came through a process of political socialization in which support was gathered for colonialism by emphasizing the benefits of colonialism for the colonized.

Thus, an entire generation of Europeans were socialized into thinking that colonialism was in fact a noble enterprise. They were led to believe that it involved bringing European enlightenment to the uncivilized people of the world.

The English poet and writer Rudyard Kipling famously termed this perceived moral responsibility of Europeans as:

“the white man’s burden” (Hitchens, 2004).

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Agents of socialization such as the Church, the state, the media, and the education system contributed to underscoring this rationale both in the colonies and at home.

For instance, through the spread of Christianity to the colonies, and the reshaping of their education systems to impart European-style education in European languages, the colonial states attempted to socialize the colonized into having a positive opinion of the colonial state as a benevolent protector.

8. Fascism

Fascism is an extreme example of political socialization, representing a case where political socialization turns into outright indoctrination.

Shaped by forceful propaganda by the state that utilized all the major agents of socialization, including schools, media, the state, and the family,a generation of Germans and Italians were socialized into accepting the political doctrines of the fascist dictators (Koon, 1985).

Related: Fascism Examples

9. Universities

University educated people are more liberal than non-University educated people. It’s believed that left-wing beliefs are dominant in universities.

By going to university, students are exposed to left-wing professors and belief systems that socialize them into progressive viewpoints.

Many people, of course, develop left-leaning views at university through rational thought and reflection. But by being surrounded by predominantly left-leaning people, they become socialized into those viewpoints, too. It’s easier to embrace a political ideology when it’s the socially acceptable mode of behavior.

Conclusion

The concept of political socialization helps us to understand how people first learn to behave politically and what factors shape their political inclinations.

Political socialization is different from indoctrination or propaganda and unlike the latter two, is not necessarily an undesirable process that needs to be resisted.

Nearly all forms of political opinion– whether progressive or conservative – are the result of some kind of socialization or interaction with the various agents of socialization.

References

Hitchens, C. (2004). Blood, class, and empire: The enduring Anglo-American relationship. Grove Atlantic.

Hyman, H. (1959). Political socialization: A study in the psychology of political behavior. Free Press.

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Jarry, J. (2020). The anti-vaccine movement in 2020. Office for Science and Society, McGill University. https://www.mcgill.ca/oss/article/covid-19-pseudoscience/anti-vaccine-movement-2020

Koon, T.H. (1985). Believe, obey, fight: The political socialization of youth in Fascist Italy, 1922-43. University of North Carolina Press. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1086/243362

FAQs

Which is an example of political socialization quizlet? ›

Peers is an example of a political socialization. It influences you political values and thinking when you learn their stance in political socialization.

What is political socialization AP Gov quizlet? ›

Political Socialization. the process through which an individuals learn a set of political attitudes and form opinions about social issues.

What are the 7 agents of political socialization? ›

Agents of socialization

Such institutions include, but are not limited to: families, media, peers, schools, religions, work and legal systems.

What are the 4 main agents of our political socialization? ›

We focus here on four agents that are important to the socialization process—the family, the school, the peer group, and the media. There are reasons why each of these agents is considered influential for political socialization; there are also factors that limit their effectiveness.

What are the 7 agents of political socialization quizlet? ›

The Family, Schools, Mass Media, Peers, Churches and religion, Political Institutions and Leaders.

What is a political socialization quizlet? ›

Political socialization- The process by which people acquire political beliefs and values. - People acquire these beliefs through relationships with family, friends and co workers, web.

What is political socialization AP Gov? ›

Political Socialization is the process in which people develop their political values, beliefs, attitudes and ideology. It is a process that is continuous, which means it happens throughout one's life. In the U.S there are many different cultures and backgrounds, which contributes to a high variety of perspectives.

Which of the following best illustrates the process of political socialization? ›

Which of the following scenarios best describes the process of political socialization? An individual's political views are influenced by his religious beliefs regarding social justice.

What were the three great waves of immigration to America? ›

Anecdotal evidence suggests that there have been three waves of immigration from the Middle East to the United States, roughly defined as a first wave from the late 1800's to 1924, then a second wave from the mid 1940's until 1965, and a third wave from the passage of the 1965 Immi- gration and Nationality Act until ...

What are the 8 agents of socialization? ›

Socialization agents are a combination of social groups and social institutions that provide the first experiences of socialization. Families, early education, peer groups, the workplace, religion, government, and media all communicate expectations and reinf orce norms.

What are the 5 main agents of socialization? ›

An individual usually learns these aspects of culture and society social groups called agents of socialization. There are five main agents of socialization: family, education, peer groups, religious organization and mass media.

What are the 3 agents of socialization? ›

These agents of socialization include family, peer group, neighbourhood, religious centre, school, mass media, etc.
  • Family. ...
  • School. ...
  • The Neighborhood. ...
  • Peer Group. ...
  • The Workplace. ...
  • Mass Media.
30 Oct 2020

How does religion influence political socialization? ›

This research will address the relationship between religion and political socialization. Put simply: parents socialize children, and religion influences political behavior. Thus, religious socialization from parents should play a prominent role in socializing political behavior.

What are examples of political participation? ›

These activities range from developing thinking about disability or other social issues at the individual or family level, joining disabled people's organizations or other groups and organizations, and campaigning at the local, regional or national level, to the process of formal politics, such as voting, joining a ...

What is the most important agent of socialization? ›

Family is usually considered to be the most important agent of socialization. So when you are born, and you are a baby, you are completely dependent on others to survive. So your parents are those who are playing the important role. They teach you how to care for yourself.

Why is political socialization important quizlet? ›

These groups play an important part in the socialization process, helping to shape attitudes and beliefs. The process through which individuals learn a set of political attitudes and form opinions about social issues.

What is the most important and influential agent of political socialization quizlet? ›

Family, school, peers and mass media are the most important. other factors are religion, race and ethnicity, gender, age, the region where you live and political events.

Do religious activities play a role in socialization quizlet? ›

Do religious activities play a role in socialization? Yes, people who participate in religious activities are socialized to adopt beliefs that affect their politics.

Which answer below is the major source of political socialization quizlet? ›

The family usually plays the largest role in political socialization and people tend to vote the same way as their parents vote.

Why is family so influential in the political socialization process quizlet? ›

a. Family has been regarded as one of the biggest influential factors on political socialization. As children are able to discuss and understand issues and events, parents share opinions that will likely influence their children.

Which of the following is the first agent of political socialization for most people quizlet? ›

For most people, the first agent of political socialization is... family. Parental influence on party identification is greater when...

What is political socialization and how does it work? ›

Political Socialization is the process by which people develop their political knowledge, values, and ideology. The process of political socialization begins in childhood and continues throughout one's lifetime. Politically socialized people are more likely to actively participate in the political process.

How do political scientists define political socialization quizlet? ›

How do political scientists define political socialization? as the process through which individuals acquire their political beliefs and values.

What factors influence political attitudes and socialization? ›

Education, gender, occupation, family, etc. Some of them. The "family", one of these factors, is the most important institution in which all social and political processes are inherited since the birth of the individual. A lot of research reveals that the family of an individual adopts and maintains political attitude.

Which of the following has the greatest impact on political socialization? ›

The family is usually considered the most important influence on both a person's overall socialization and their political socialization. Families profoundly affect people's views about religion, work, and education.

Which of the following best illustrates the process of political socialization quizlet Julio? ›

Which of the following best illustrates the process of political socialization? Julio's class stands and recites the Pledge of Allegiance while facing the flag.

Which of the following are examples of the effect economic class has on political opinion quizlet? ›

Which of the following are examples of the effect economic class has on political opinion? Welfare assistance has higher support among lower-income Americans than higher-income Americans. Income levels affect Americans' opinions on some public policy issues.

Who were the first immigrants to America? ›

Thousands of years before Europeans began crossing the vast Atlantic by ship and settling en masse, the first immigrants arrived in North America from Asia. They were Native American ancestors who crossed a narrow spit of land connecting Asia to North America at least 20,000 years ago, during the last Ice Age.

Who were the first people to come to America? ›

In the 1970s, college students in archaeology such as myself learned that the first human beings to arrive in North America had come over a land bridge from Asia and Siberia approximately 13,000 to 13,500 years ago. These people, the first North Americans, were known collectively as Clovis people.

When did Jews immigrate to America? ›

In the century spanning the years 1820 through 1924, an increasingly steady flow of Jews made their way to America, culminating in a massive surge of immigrants towards the beginning of the twentieth century.

What are the 9 agents of socialization? ›

agents of socialization: agents of socialization, or institutions that can impress social norms upon an individual, include the family, religion, peer groups, economic systems, legal systems, penal systems, language, and the media.

What are the 4 types of socialization? ›

Question: What are the different types of socialization?
  • Primary socialization,
  • Anticipatory socialization,
  • Developmental socialization and.
  • Re-socialization.
15 Dec 2013

What are the 4 importance of socialization? ›

Key Points. Socialization prepares people to participate in a social group by teaching them its norms and expectations. Socialization has three primary goals: teaching impulse control and developing a conscience, preparing people to perform certain social roles, and cultivating shared sources of meaning and value.

What are some examples of socialization? ›

Interacting with friends and family, being told to obey rules, being rewarded for doing chores, and being taught how to behave in public places are all examples of socialization that enable a person to function within his or her culture.

What are the main socializing agents quizlet? ›

Terms in this set (7)
  • Agents of Socialization. Social experiences that contribute to socialization; family, school, mass media, peer groups.
  • Family. ...
  • School. ...
  • Mass Media. ...
  • Peer Groups. ...
  • Total Institution. ...
  • Resocialization.

What is an example of primary socialization? ›

A primary agent of socialization is a person, place, or thing responsible for socialization during the early years of an individual's life. Examples of primary agents of socialization include family, daycare, schools, peer groups, and media.

What are the 4 main agents of socialization quizlet? ›

Terms in this set (4)
  • Family. 1st agent, most important, primary group.
  • Peer group. People your age, not structured.
  • School. Structured, empathize on skills you will need in life.
  • Mass media. Forms of communication reach large audiences.

How is gender socialized? ›

Gender socialization is the process by which we learn our culture's gender-related rules, norms, and expectations. The most common agents of gender socialization—in other words, the people who influence the process—are parents, teachers, schools, and the media.

What are the 2 agents of socialization? ›

Agencies of Socialization
  • Family. Family members can include parents, siblings, grandparents, aunts, uncles, and cousins. ...
  • Schools. Schools are important secondary agent of socialization. ...
  • Community / Neighborhood. ...
  • Peers. ...
  • Mass Media. ...
  • Religion. ...
  • Government.
11 Jul 2022

Which of the following is the best definition of political socialization quizlet? ›

Which of the following is the best definition of political socialization? Political socialization is the introduction of individuals into the culture and the learning of the values and beliefs on which the system is based.

What is socialization and examples? ›

Interacting with friends and family, being told to obey rules, being rewarded for doing chores, and being taught how to behave in public places are all examples of socialization that enable a person to function within his or her culture.

What is political socialization AP Gov? ›

Political Socialization is the process in which people develop their political values, beliefs, attitudes and ideology. It is a process that is continuous, which means it happens throughout one's life. In the U.S there are many different cultures and backgrounds, which contributes to a high variety of perspectives.

Why is political socialization important quizlet? ›

These groups play an important part in the socialization process, helping to shape attitudes and beliefs. The process through which individuals learn a set of political attitudes and form opinions about social issues.

Which is one of the influences on political socialization? ›

The family is usually considered the most important influence on both a person's overall socialization and their political socialization. Families profoundly affect people's views about religion, work, and education.

Which of the following are considered agents of socialization quizlet? ›

Agents include schools, peers, and the workplace.

How do political scientists define political socialization quizlet? ›

How do political scientists define political socialization? as the process through which individuals acquire their political beliefs and values.

What are the 9 agents of socialization? ›

agents of socialization: agents of socialization, or institutions that can impress social norms upon an individual, include the family, religion, peer groups, economic systems, legal systems, penal systems, language, and the media.

What are the 5 types of socialization? ›

Types of Socialization. Generally, there are five types of socialization: primary, secondary, developmental, anticipatory and resocialization. This type of socialization happens when a child learns the values, norms and behaviors that should be displayed in order to live accordingly to a specific culture.

How does religion influence political socialization? ›

This research will address the relationship between religion and political socialization. Put simply: parents socialize children, and religion influences political behavior. Thus, religious socialization from parents should play a prominent role in socializing political behavior.

What is political socialization and how does it work? ›

Political Socialization is the process by which people develop their political knowledge, values, and ideology. The process of political socialization begins in childhood and continues throughout one's lifetime. Politically socialized people are more likely to actively participate in the political process.

Which of the following is generally the most important agent of political socialization quizlet? ›

The family usually plays the largest role in political socialization and people tend to vote the same way as their parents vote.

Why is family so influential in the political socialization process quizlet? ›

a. Family has been regarded as one of the biggest influential factors on political socialization. As children are able to discuss and understand issues and events, parents share opinions that will likely influence their children.

Why are social policies controversial quizlet? ›

Why are social policies controversial? They require people to accept the authority of the government. They require government to balance the rights and liberties of different groups.

Which of the following best illustrates the process of political socialization? ›

Which of the following scenarios best describes the process of political socialization? An individual's political views are influenced by his religious beliefs regarding social justice.

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